State of Clojure Survey 2019 Analysis

Cognitect have recently released the results of their State of Clojure Survey for 2019. For the last three Clojure surveys, I have reviewed the free-form answers at the end of the survey and tried to summarise how the community is feeling. This year I’m repeating the exercise, keeping the same categories as before. If you’d like to see all of the comments, I’ve published them in rough groupings.

Some comments have been lightly edited for spelling, clarity, and brevity.

Update: Alex Miller has posted a few responses to some of the comments I highlighted below, and some suggestions for the next steps that people can take to help.

Error messages

Error messages have been a top complaint in Clojure for a long time, I think since the very first survey. CLJ-2373 introduced improvements to error messages in Clojure 1.10. A number of comments complained about error messages this year, but none of the complaints mentioned 1.10’s changes. Given that 1.10 was released on 17 December 2018, and the survey ran from 7-22 January 2019, it seems likely to me that many of the people complaining haven’t tried the latest improvement to Clojure’s error messages.


Spec has been around for two and half years, but is still in alpha. A number of comments referenced Rich’s recent Maybe Not talk about coming changes to Spec. It was great to see Rich putting in to words some of the problems I had felt. It feels like the community is in a transitional phase with spec, where people are still not quite sure where things are going to land.


Documentation has continued to be a sore spot for beginners. API docstrings were often cited as being too hard to understand, instead people preferred to see examples at The documentation at has grown this year with a number of great guides added, particularly Programming at the REPL.

Startup time

Startup time has been a perennial complaint, and there haven’t been any major changes here.


Clojure continues to grow in business adoption, but hiring developers has been one of the top three things preventing people from using Clojure for the last three years. I’ll add that one way that companies could address the mismatched supply and demand of Clojure developers is being more open to remote workers. Update: Alex Miller also suggested training people in Clojure, which I thought about when preparing the post, but forgot to include in the final copy.

A new option in the survey this year was “Convincing coworkers/companies/clients”; it was ranked number one in preventing people from adopting Clojure. In my opinion, this is a significant issue to be addressed if Clojure wants to grow its market share further. This probably needs more research to find out what the barriers are to convincing people. Elm is proof that exotic languages can be adopted widely, we should learn from what they’ve done.


There were again more suggestions for improvements to existing language features, or development of new ones.

Language Development Process

2018 had a lot of discussions about Clojure’s development process, and the relationship between the core team and the community. I was very curious to see how widely those feelings were reflected in the free-form comments from respondents. After compliments (~230), this was the most common comment type, with ~70 responses (positive, negative, and in-between) on Clojure’s language development process (out of 563 total comments). While many people had issues with the development process, there were also many people who were supportive of how Clojure is currently developed.


People seem to mostly enjoy the Clojure community, but others have had negative experiences, often citing an elitist attitude from some community members. Losing the history from Clojurians Slack came up several times. I’m not sure if everyone is aware of the Clojurians Slack Log?


People are still looking for a curated on-ramp into Clojure web development, a ‘Rails for Clojure’. There are a number of frameworks and templates here, but they don’t seem to be hitting the spot. I’m not sure whether that is because of limited mindshare/marketing, limited documentation, or the scope and quality of the frameworks. Having used Clojure for many years, I no longer find it difficult to find and assemble the pieces that I need for projects, but I definitely remember finding this being difficult when I started. Data Science and ML were places that people saw a niche for Clojure. Several people hoped for improvements on core.async, it still has a number of rough edges.

Other compilation targets

People have been experimenting with the Graal compiler to produce static binaries without needing a JVM. At this point that seems like the strongest option for people wanting to use Clojure without the JVM. Better Android support was also requested.


For the past few years people have been less and less worried about types. I suspect this is mostly due to spec.


Shadow CLJS was mentioned by many people as having been a great part of their workflow. For those not using Shadow, externs remain challenging.


Clojure’s tooling has continued to improve. This year lots of work has been done adding plugins or expanding functionality of the new official Clojure tools. clj on Windows was asked for by many people. Maintainer burnout seems like a significant risk to the Clojure tooling ecosystem.


As always, the vast number of comments were compliments to Clojure and the core team.


Clojure is a great language, and people are very enthusiastic about it. Its adoption in business continues to grow. There are a number of areas for improvement still, especially if the Clojure community wants to grow further. Not all of this work needs to go through Core though, particularly in areas of documentation and guides, libraries, and tooling.

I worry about the Clojure community losing key contributors. There are a few linchpins holding a lot of things together; if we lose them, it will be hard to come back from. If you don’t want to see this happen then please support the libraries and tools you rely on by contributing code, documentation, issue triage, or money.